Tuesday, June 9, 2020
Social classes are defined as a status hierarchy in which individuals and groups are classified on the basis of esteem, prestige, wealth, income, education, occupation, and social network. Social class, measured by socioeconomic status, affects all aspects of ones life. Having a high socioeconomic status can bring a multitude of opportunities that people of lower status will probably never get. In ideal world, everyone would be of equal status and there would be no more poverty. However, according to the United States Census Bureau, there were over 40 million people that have been living in poverty in 2016. Poverty is a reality and people have had to adapt to to their socioeconomic status. The Outsiders, by SE. Hinton, can be used to show how socioeconomic status affects the lives of teenager and how they adapt to their circumstances. In The Outsiders, Ponyboy, our 14 year old main character, narrates two weeks of his life with the purpose of telling the story of his best friends death. One of the main themes of the book is a class struggle. In this small rural town, there is a class rivalry between the greasers, the poor east side kids, and the Socs, the west side rich kids. This rivalry has had many consequences and both sides suffered. Although The Outsiders, was written decades ago, the class inequality and mistreatment of the poor still persists. The Outsiders can aid in our understanding the effects of being in low social class and how the characters have had to adapt to and rise above their circumstances and societys injustices. The story begins with Ponyboy walking out of the movie theaters with two things on his mind: Paul Newman and a ride home. It wasnt safe for greasers to walk alone because theyll get jumped, or someone will come by and scream Greaser! at them, which doesnt make you feel too hot, [Greasers] get jumped by the Socs. [Hinton 4] Although it was a long walk between his house and the theater, he decided to lone it because he enjoys going to the movies undisturbed by others. However this was not the greatest of ideas seeing that a red Corvair, which only Socs could afford, began to trail him. Five Socs got out the car and They walked around slowly, silently, smiling. Hey, grease, one said in an over-friendly voice. Were gonna do you a favor, greaser. Were gonna cut all that long greasy hair off. [Hinton] Eventually Ponyboys brothers and their group of friends scared the Socs off. This incident sets the tone for the rest of the story because it shows that the groups didnt need any provocation to become aggressive towards each other. In this town, being of a low socioeconomic status can put one in a very dangerous situation. Ponyboy was doing what any other teenager would do and went to enjoy a movie. However because he is a greaser, he got jumped on his walk home for no reason other than being poor. His older brother and guardian Darry then begun to scold him for walking alone without a switchblade as if it was Ponyboys fault for getting jumped. Then his other brother, Soda, pointed out It aint his fault he likes to go to the movies, and it aint his fault the Socs like to jump us, and if he had been carrying a blade it would have been a good excuse to cut him to ribbons. [Hinton] Greasers cant walk alone too much because they will get jumped but they coped with their situation by carrying weapons and traveling in groups. If Ponyboy had thought about it, I could have called Darry and he would have come by on his way home and picked me up, or Two-Bit Mathews one of our gang would have come to get me in his car if I had asked him, but sometimes I just dont use my head. Greasers are subjected to violence and aggression due to their social standing but they have adapted to their circumstances.
Sunday, May 24, 2020
Researh of Galileo Galilei The Italian physicist was born is Pisa on 15 February 1564 (see appendix B). He was the first of seven children. Galileo was educated by a tutor and his father, a nobleman and well known for musical studies. At the age of 11 he was sent to a local monastery where he, like other children of noble people studied Greek, Latin, religion and music. Following his fathers wish, he continued his education, at the age of 17 he enrolled as a student of medicine at the University of Pisa in 1581. He showed little interest in medicine, it was at this time when mathematics captured his attention. It was around one year after enrolling at the University of Pisa, he made the legendary discovery of the movement ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦He was offered a lifetime professorship at the University of Padua, he declined the offer, he later resigned and returned to Florence. Some theologians claimed that Copernicus, and therefore Galileo, was conflicting with the bible and the doctrines of the church about the order of creation. He was told to teach his findings only as theory not as truth. In 1615, Galileos book about his findings was banned by the church. Galileo remained quiet for a few years until he published his next book, which compared the two models of the universe, although Galileo carefully presented the various claims in theoretical terms it was apparent he believed the Ptolmemaic- were all planets including the sun orbit the earth, was false. And the Copernician system- were all planets orbit the sun was true. Even though it received the churchs imprimaur it was later banned shortly after its publication. Galileo was summoned to Rome to answer to his inquisition to stand trial for heresy, the charge was did he defy the paper-ban of teaching the Copernician system. After a five-month trial he was found guilty and was sentenced to house arrest for the remainder of his life. As time went on, his popularity grew and noted figures such as John Milton went out of their way to visit him shortly before his death. Galileo worked solo on his
Sunday, May 17, 2020
Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus (c. 519Ã¢â¬â430Ã BCE) was a farmer, statesman, and military leader who lived in early Rome. He considered himself a farmer above all, but when he was called to serve his country he did so well, efficiently, and without question, even though a prolonged absence from his farm could mean starvation for his family. When he served his country, he made his stint as dictator as brief as possible. For his faithful service, he became a model of Roman virtue. Fast Facts: Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus Known For: Cincinnatus was a Roman statesman who served as the kingdoms dictator during at least one time of crisis; he later became a model of Roman virtue and public service.Also Known As: Lucius Quintius CincinnatusBorn: c. 519 BCE in the Kingdom of RomeDied: c. 430 BCE in the Roman RepublicSpouse: RacillaChildren: Caeso Early Life Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus was born around 519 BCE in Rome. At the time, Rome was still a small kingdom made up of the city and its surrounding territory. Lucius was a member of the Quinctia, a patrician family that produced numerous state officials. Lucius was given the name Cincinnatus, meaning the curly-haired. Historians believe that Cincinnatuss family was wealthy; however, little else is known about his family or his early life. Consul By 462 BCE, the Roman kingdom was in trouble. Conflicts had escalated between the wealthy, powerful patricians and the lesser plebeians, who were fighting for constitutional reforms that would have placed limits on patrician authority. Dissension between these two groups eventually turned violent, weakening Roman power in the region. According to legend, Cincinnatuss son Caeso was one of the most violent offenders in the struggle between the patricians and the plebeians. To prevent the plebeians from assembling in the Roman Forum, Caeso would apparently organize gangs to push them out. Caesos activities eventually led to charges being brought against him. Rather than face justice, however, he fled to Tuscany. In 460 BCE, the Roman consul Publius Valerius Poplicola was killed by rebel plebeians. Cincinnatus was called in to take his place; in this new position, however, he apparently had only moderate success in quelling the rebellion. He eventually stepped down and returned to his farm. At the same time, the Romans were at war with the Aequi, an Italic tribe about whom historians know very little. After losing several battles, the Aequi managed to trick and trap the Romans. A few Roman horsemen then escaped to Rome to warn the Senate of their armys plight. Dictator Cincinnatus was apparently plowing his fieldÃ when he learned he had been appointed dictator, a position the Romans had created strictly for emergencies, for six months. He was asked to help defend the Romans against the neighboring Aequi, who had surrounded the Roman army and the consul Minucius in the Alban Hills. A group of Senators was sent to bring Cincinnatus the news. He accepted the appointment and dressed in his white toga before traveling to Rome, where he was given several bodyguards for protection. Cincinnatus quickly organized an army, calling together all the Roman men who were old enough to serve. He commanded them against the Aequi at the Battle of Mount Algidus, which took place in the region of Latium. Although the Romans were expected to lose, they quickly defeated the Aequi under the leadership of Cincinnatus and his Master of the Horse, Lucius Tarquitius. Cincinnatus made the defeated Aequi pass under a yoke of spears to show their subjugation. He took the Aequi leaders as prisoners and brought them to Rome for punishment. After this great victory, Cincinnatus gave up the title of dictator 16 days after it had been granted and promptly returned to his farm.Ã¢â¬â¹ His faithful service and lack of ambition made him a hero in the eyes of his countrymen. According to some accounts, Cincinnatus was appointed dictator again for a later Roman crisis in the wake of a grain distribution scandal. This time, a plebeian named Spurius Maelius was allegedly planning to bribe the poor as part of a plot to make himself king. There was a famine going at the time but Maelius, who was in possession of a large store of wheat, was allegedly selling it to other plebeians at a low price to curry favor with them. This worried the Roman patricians, who feared he had ulterior motives for his generosity. Once again, CincinnatusÃ¢â¬ânow 80 years old, according to LivyÃ¢â¬â was appointed dictator. He made Gaius Servilius Structus Ahala his Master of the Horse. Cincinnatus issued orders for Maelius to appear before him but Maelius fled. During the ensuing manhunt, Ahala ended up killing Maelius. A hero again, Cincinnatus resigned his post after 21 days. Death There is little information about Cincinnatuss life after his second term as dictator. He is reported to have died around 430 BCE. Legacy The life and accomplishments of CincinnatusÃ¢â¬âwhether true or merely legendaryÃ¢â¬âwere an important part of early Roman history. The farmer-turned-dictator became a model of Roman virtue; he was celebrated by later Romans for his loyalty and brave service. Unlike some other Roman leaders, who plotted and schemed to build their own power and wealth, Cincinnatus did not exploit his authority. After he had performed the duties required of him, he swiftly resigned and returned to his quiet life in the country. Cincinnatus is the subject of several notable artworks, including Riberas Cincinnatus Leaves the Plough to Dictate Laws to Rome. Many places are named in his honor, including Cincinnatti, Ohio, and Cincinnatus, New York. A statue of the Roman leader stands in Tuileries Garden in France. Sources Hillyard, Michael J.Ã Cincinnatus and the Citizen-Servant Ideal: the Roman Legends Life, Times, and Legacy. Xlibris, 2001.Livy.Ã Rome and Italy: the History of Rome from Its Foundation. Edited by R. M. Ogilvie, Penguin, 2004.Neel, Jaclyn.Ã Early Rome: Myth and Society. John Wiley Sons, Inc., 2017.
Thursday, May 14, 2020
In 1862, Confederate Major General Kirby Smith ordered an offensive into Kentucky. The advance team was led by Brigadier General Patrick R. Cleburne who had his cavalry led by Colonel John S. Scott out front. On August 29th, the cavalry began a skirmish with Union troopers on the road to Richmond, Kentucky. By noon, the Union infantry and artillery had joined the fight, causing the Confederates to retreat to Big Hill. Pressing his advantage, Union Brigadier General Mahlon D. Manson sent a brigade to march towards Rogersville and the Confederates. Dates August 29-30, 1862 Location Richmond, Kentucky Key Individuals Involved Union: Major General William NelsonConfederate: Major General E. Kirby Smith Outcome Confederate Victory. 5,650 casualties of which 4,900 were Union soldiers. Overview of the Battle The day ended with a brief skirmish between the Union forces and CleburneÃ¢â¬â¢s men. During the evening both Manson and Cleburne discussed the situation with their superior officers. Union Major General William Nelson ordered another brigade to attack. Confederate Major General Kirby Smith gave Cleburne the order to attack and promised reinforcements. In the early morning hours, Cleburne marched north, won against Union skirmishers, and approached the Union line near Zion Church. Over the course of the day, reinforcements arrived for both sides. After exchanging artillery fire, the troops attacked. The Confederates were able to push through the Union right, causing them to retreat to Rogersville. They tried to make a stand there. At this point, Smith and Nelson had taken command of their own armies. Nelson attempted to rally the troops, but the Union soldiers were routed. Nelson and some of his men were able to escape. However, by the end of the day, 4,000 Union soldiers were captured. More significantly, the way north was open for the Confederates to advance.
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Greek Tragedy and the Morality of Greek Culture Theater in ancient Greece was considered the climax of the days long cultural festival of The City Dionysia. At the festival, various types of plays were shown but one of the most popular was tragedy. These tragedies show the main character, usually a god or person of myth, going through human suffering and the terrible sequence of events that followed; and were produced in 472- 401 BCE. In order for a play to be performed at The City Dionysia festival; tragic playwrights would first have to appeal to the state official that was organizing the festival by submitting ideas to him and his committee. The ideas submitted were outlines of main themes and points of interest to be performed in the play. If a playwright was selected by the state official and his committee, then they received a financial backer and a chance to compete in the drama competition of the festival. The state official, or his committee, was likely pushing their own agenda and choose playwrights that matched their id eals. This is just one example of how theater in ancient Greece was used to influence the morality of Greek culture by using the stories of tragedies, like those of Euripides. The City Dionysia Festival was a celebration of the god DionysusÃ¢â¬â¢ arrival in Athens in mythical times and was usually held annually between March and April. The festival and theater performances were ways of honoring the god Dionysus, who is the god of the grape harvest,Show MoreRelatedGreek And Roman Influence On Western Culture1063 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesGreek and Roman Contribution To Western Culture Greek and Roman culture are the most often thought of in history, and that is due to the many contributions it had to the future. Greeks were very philosophical and were constantly questioning morality. The Classical age of the Greeks, 479-323 B.C.E., is mentioned in reference to tragedies. During this age, Greeks were exploring their minds and searching for deeper understandings. They were also infatuated with fate and the effects of trying to modifyRead MoreHamlet, Prince of Denmark825 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWilliam Shakespeare Submitted by: Tariq Khan Dated: Monday, 24th September, 2012 Hamlet as a Tragedy by William Shakespeare 1.1. Brief Introduction to Tragedy: Greek and English: Elizabethan tragedy is traced back to Greek tragedy, since Greeks are said to have pioneered the Western knowledge, be it Science, Arts, or HumanitiesÃ¢â¬ânot necessarily Technology. The rich contribution of Greek dramatists like Sophocles, Euripides, Aeschylus and Aristophanes, is noteworthy, towards the developmentRead MoreAnalysis Of Nietzsche The Birth Of Tragedy1998 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesNina Melovska Essay 3 Professor: Arne HÃ ¶cker GRMN 5030-001 Foundations of Critical Theory 15 December 2017 Friedrich Nietzsche: Ã¢â¬Å"The Birth of TragedyÃ¢â¬ On Aesthetics for the benefit of life To look upon things from the perspective of beauty is one way of ascribing meaning to things, and whatever path we chose in the attempt to define perfection, it must have begun with the contemplation of beauty. As Oscar Wilde once wrote in his essay The Critic as Artist: Ã¢â¬Å"It is through art and through art onlyRead MoreNietzsche s View On The Genealogy Of Morals1553 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesAccording to NietzscheÃ¢â¬â¢s assertions in the first two essays of On the Genealogy of Morals, human beings suffer because they have lost the ability to enjoy life to its fullest extent. 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The story depicts a religious society that believed in supernatural powers that punishes people for been sinners. The story is also significant in understanding the values, norms and beliefs of the Sumerians. In particular, we learn that the Sumerians valued morality, loathed beastly acts and believed in just leadership. The main themes in this epic of Gilg amesh are deathRead MoreComparing The Religions Of Hinduism And Buddhism Essay1459 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesthat will never die out. #4) Discuss the philosophical and cultural contributions of the Ancient Greeks. How did thinkers such as Socrates, Plato, Aristotle and the later Hellenistic philosophers shape the world, and what culture does the world gain from the Greeks? There are a considerable amount of cultures that have impacted the world, but one of the most dominant is Greece. The Ancient Greeks have brought several influential aspects to the world including politics, philosophy, art, science
Death penalty is also known as capital punishment. Capital Punishment is a penalty of execution, administered to someone legally convicted of a capital crime. The death penalty was established in America in 1608. The British influenced America to use the death sentence. The first recorded practice of the death penalty in America was to Caption George Kendall in Virginia, he was found guilty of being a spy for Spain. However, the death penalty came long before Captain George Kendall. The first established record of capital punishment that has been recorded goes back to the 18th century B.C in the Code of King Hammurabi of Babylon, famously known as, an eye for an eye. Another record of the death penalty comes from the 14th century B.C Hittite Code, 7th century B.C Roman laws of the 12 Tablets, also famously known as the crucifixion. Death sentences came in varies ways, such as, burning alive (witch craft), beaten to death, stoning, drowning and impalement. So, as you see the death pen alty has been with us for a while and shortly after, it was presented to America. Capital punishment has been changed over time. In 1612, the Moral and Martial Laws were established by a Virginia Governor, which offered the death penalty for even minor offenses such as stealing, killing animals, and trading with Indians. Each colony had different death penalty law. The New York State instituted the Dukes Laws of 1665. Under the New York State laws, offenses such as disobeying and/or hittingShow MoreRelatedTaking a Look at Capital Punishment1003 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesCapital punishment is a topic highly debated upon. For years the court systems have been debating whether the criminals deserve this strict punishment or not. However, despite the verdict from the judge, people have still been divided on whether capital punishment does more harm than good. A major subject that comes up is if the government has a justifiable reason for killing convicted people. Some only look at the negative but there are plenty of reasons why this is a positive action. Capital punishme ntRead MoreTaking a Look at Capital Punishment677 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pagesdeath penalty for alleged criminals in the United States needs to change because there is an unacceptable number of posthumous exonerations, and a negative generational impact on the family of the accused. The death penalty is a common method of capital punishment in the United States, used mainly for serious crimes such as murder. Currently, there are five different authorized methods of execution in this country: hanging, electrocution, lethal gas, firing squad, and lethal injection. Of these five,Read MoreTaking a Look at Capital Punishment1004 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesFurman had four main arguments: most western nations had abolished capital punishment because it was an unsuccessful way to deter crime; juries only handed out about 100 death penalties each year, and only about 50 prisoners were sentenced to death so capital punishment was not being issued objectively; national prison records stated that executions almost always involved black prisoners; and the only reason why capital punishment had not been abolished in the United States is because legislaturesRead MoreTaking a Look at Capital Punishment1080 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages Since 1608, legal systems have used capital punishment as justice. Ã¢â¬Å"As of November 2014, 32 states have the death penalty. There have been a total of 1348 executions from January 1977 to the end of 2014Ã¢â¬ (capitalpunishmentuk). The capital punishment only affects those who sentenced in the crime of rape or murder. The most popular death method is lethal injection. There are other options such as Ã¢â¬Å"electrocution, hanging, shooting, and the gas chamberÃ¢â¬ (capitalpunishmentuk) but theses alternativeRead MoreTaking a Look at Capital Punishment606 Words Ã |Ã 2 PagesWould you rather want the murderer of your loved one to have a capital punishment or do you want them to spend their entire life in a prison cell? That question raises a lot of controversy to the public because of the capital punishment. To prevent criminals from killing they are given a capital punishment who has committed horrendous crimes to satisfy oneself, but many people think that criminals shou ldnt be given death penalty because it decreases the value of life. In the article Ã¢â¬Å"Death andRead MoreTaking a Look at Capital Punishment2178 Words Ã |Ã 9 PagesCapital punishment also known as the death penalty is a sentence which requires the use of deadly force on high risk inmates. This form of punishment has become a controversial topic for many debates. 58 nations are currently using capital punishment in their justice systems, 97 countries have decided to abolish it completely. Canada decided to abolish capital punishment from the Canadian Criminal Code in 1976, and many argue whether the abolishment had any positive outcome on CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s justice systemRead MoreCessation of Life: Who are we to choose?- A look into the Death Penalty686 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages The topic of capital punishment is a hot one. Human beings are capable of doing some monstrous things. For a victim of a heinous crime, sometimes the only justice seems to be an eye for an eye. And most of the time those victims look to our court systems to provide that justice. But is death the answer? I believe that with human fallibility and the fallibility of our court system as variables, that a sentence that cannot be overturned should not be passed down in any case, especially when thatRead MoreA Hanging By George Orwell1141 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesconvey his argument against capital punishment. Orwell as an officer of the law is sworn to enforce the laws of the state, even if he disagrees with them morally. Orwell wrote Ã¢â¬Å"A HangingÃ¢â¬ using an event he acted in to describe his point on why capital punishment is a crime against nature. Although as a police man he could not oppose the law, his story Ã¢â¬Å"A HangingÃ¢â¬ , Orwell shows his opposition through many s ymbolic forms. Like Orwell I too am against capital punishment, by writing Ã¢â¬Å"A HangingÃ¢â¬ GeorgeRead More Capital Punishment Essay - Justice in Retribution1470 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesCapital Punishment: Justice in Retribution Ã Ã The American government operates in the fashion of an indirect democracy. Citizens live under a social contract whereby individuals agree to forfeit certain rights for the good of the whole. Punishments for crimes against the state are carried out via due process, guaranteed by the Fourteenth Amendment. The use of capital punishment is decided by the state, which is legal in thirty-seven states. It is a moral imperative to protect the states rightsRead MoreThe Death Penalty Is The Punishment Of Execution1247 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWhat is the death penalty? The death penalty is the punishment of execution, administered to someone legally convicted of a capital crime. In the reading selection Ã¢â¬Å"The DEATH PENALTY in AMERICAÃ¢â¬ Bedau says that Ã¢â¬Å"The history of the death penalty in America can be useful if roughly divided into six epochs of very uneven duration and importance (3)Ã¢â¬ .The author is saying that the history of the death penalty can be usefully if it is separate into different time period. The author says Ã¢â¬Å"first, from the
As citizens of the United States we exist under a federal system of government. There are different levels of the system, each cooperating with the next and each having some form of formal authority over the people. The age long argument has been: Ã¢â¬Å"more state power is most effective Ã¢â¬â no, more federal power is most effectiveÃ¢â¬ . There are also those who believe that an equal cooperation between both state and federal governments, our current way of separating power, is the most effective. So where should the line be drawn and which is most effective? The Constitution gave us a basic outline for how we should run our government. The bottom line is cooperative federalism Ã¢â¬â powers and policy assignments are shared between states and the national government and they may also share costs, administration, and even blame for programs that work poorly (Edwards 81). The idea of cooperative federalism has raised an important question: Where do the boundaries of national government end and where do the boundaries of state governments begin? The tenth amendment has somewhat of an answer to where the state boundaries begin. It says that if a state is not given a power directly by the constitution but is not prohibited from using that power then it is the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s right to use and regulate that power. As for the boundaries of the national government, the supreme court case of McCulloch v. Maryland gives a good example. In 1791 the government established a national bank. This bank could print money and make loans as well as a number of other banking responsibilities. Many people who believed that the government should have a limited amount of control over the economy were opposed to the idea of a national bank. Eventually the government stopped funding the bank, but not long after came the second national bank. Out of defiance to the bank, the state of Maryland passed a law taxing the Baltimore branch $15,000 a year which it refused to pay. Maryland decided to sue the branchÃ¢â¬â¢s cashier, James McCulloch, and after the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s law was upheld McCulloch took the case to the Supreme Court. Chief Justice John Marshall ruled in favor of the bank on the grounds that Congress has certain implied powers and that because of these implied powers creating a national bank was perfectly acceptable. Just like the state governments, the powers of the national government are not always clear and can be interpreted rather narrowly or quite broadly. In Article 1 Section 8 of the constitution the powers of congress are specifically listed-enumerated powers-but this section of the constitution also includes the Ã¢â¬Å"necessary and proper clauseÃ¢â¬ This clause states that Congress may create any laws or policies it sees fit to apply the powers specifically spelled out. Going hand-in-hand with implied powers and the Ã¢â¬Å"necessary and proper clauseÃ¢â¬ is the commerce clause. The commerce clause gives congress the right to regulate commerce. Commerce can be defined today as the movement of goods, radio signals, electricity, telephone messages, the internet, insurance transactions, and more (Edwards 77). Congress regulates the movement of all of these between the U. S and foreign nations, between states, and between Indian Tribes. With an extremely broad definition of commerce people have become concerned with how much power the national government actually has. Contributing to this concern are grants-in-aid and unfunded mandates. Grants-in-aid are grants given to state government from the federal government to aid in different programs and projects. Concern arises because grants often come with strings attached and sometimes are not given to states until they fulfill certain requirements (this would be an example of a mandate). Sometimes the government passes a law and expects states to follow that law and fund it without help from the government; this is an unfunded mandate. The federal government often uses grants-in-aid and unfunded mandates to have more control over what happens within the states which is where the concern of cooperation and boundaries comes from. In addition to the different components of federalism, there are pieces of legislature that also make people question whether more, less, or the same amount of power to the states is most effective. Among these pieces of legislature are the Affordable Care Act and the Clean Air Act. The Affordable Care Act, or Obamacare, was designed to make health insurance more readily available and more affordable. Obamacare, has two key components: an individual mandate and Medicaid expansion. People who do not have health insurance, either through their employer or personally, are required to purchase health care before 2014. Anyone who does not follow this mandate will be required to pay a Ã¢â¬Å"shared responsibility paymentÃ¢â¬ to the Federal government. As of right now Medicaid covers pregnant women, children, needy families, the blind, the elderly, and the disabled. Obamacare would expand this by requiring states to provide care to adults with incomes up to 133 percent of the federal poverty level. This act also increases the amount of money states will receive for this mandate. In the case that a state does not follow the Medicaid expansion it may lose all funding for both the requirements and Medicaid. The Clean Air Act regulates the amount of pollutants floating in the air, the amount of pollutants released by industrial and mobile sources, and the types of fines and sanctions levied against pollution violators (Potoski 335). The environmental protection agency allows states to take responsibility of the requirements in their state and as long as they follow the minimum requirements the state will receive funding from the government. If a state does not comply with the minimum standards for clean air, the Clean Air Act will become an unfunded mandate just the same as Obamacare would become an unfunded mandate. Where Obamacare and the Clean Air Act are concerned, policymaking is most effective through state and federal cooperation. First and foremost if a state decided not to follow the requirements of expanding Medicaid, the burden of an unfunded mandate would rest on the shoulders of its citizens and its government. The same would go for the Clean Air Act. This may even be worse considering the point of the Clean Air Act is to keep our air clean. Without the cooperation of the states we donÃ¢â¬â¢t have clean air and without clean air we have sickness and unhealthy conditions for our citizens. This being said cooperation is extremely important between the levels of government. If the federal government were to have more control, at least where these policies are concerned, there is the potential danger of the government issuing these policies and not providing funding for them because they donÃ¢â¬â¢t want to spend the money or they want to show how powerful they are or for whatever reason. In the event that this happens the states are stuck with a pretty large burden of making sure that they have enough money to meet the standards of Medicaid expansion and the clean air act. In the case that states had more power, inconsistency would become a reality. Every state is different. They want different things and not all are willing to meet the same standards. If enough inconsistency occurs and each state creates different standards for their policies, thereÃ¢â¬â¢s almost no point to having the federal government because states start to believe themselves to be independent. With all of that being said, policymaking is most effective through state and federal cooperation. With more power to one or the other we lose sight of a democracy. Our country was designed on the basis of cooperative federalism. We wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t be the United States anymore without the federal government, without the states, or with one having more power over the other. Our system of checks and balances provides us with an effective way of accomplishing our goals and staying united. Federalism In America